De site van het Nubisch museum in Aswan.Een erg mooie site.Veel over het museum zelf maar ook over de Nubiers.Misschien wel het meest interessant zijn de links naar andere web sites.Sommige links werken niet maar er zitten juweeltjes tussen.Die sites gaan vaak ook verder dan Egypte.Ook Soedan en Ethiopixc3xab, en de archeologische opgravingen daar, komen aan bod.
Links: The Nubia Museum.
Koning ShabatkaDit is bijvoorbeeld de pagina waarop het hoofd van Koning Shabatka te zien is.Kroon/diadeemHier zie je de kronen of diademen.A-groepDit is een beschrijving van de Nubiers en hun leefgewoontes,archeologische vondsten ed van voor de Egyptische overheersing.Deel van de tekst over de A-groep van de web site:The general characteristics of the A-Group culturecan be summarised as follows.The population, estimated at less than 20 000,lived in small communities along the flood plain.Structural remains of houses have been found only occasionally,most notably stone foundations and Afia, near Korosko.Animal husbandry, primarily cattle raising,formed the basis of their economy.They also practiced agriculture, growing cereal grainsand leguminous plants.Fishing, hunting and food gathering were probably complementary partsof their subsistence.On the whole, the material remains of the A-Groupdisplay a blending of Egyptian and Sudanese designs and influences.The distribution of the funerary remains indicates a social inequalitythat became strongly emphasized towards the end of the period. The control of trade and exchange in Nubia might have becomethe decisive factor in the development of the A-Group’s socio-economicand political structure.The leaders of the A-Group communities probablyplayed an important intermediary roleamong the fast-developing Egyptian economy,the communities in Upper Nubia and those in surrounding regions,furnishing raw materials of various kinds, including ivory, hardwoods,precious stones, and gold, perhaps also cattle.There are three chronological phases of the A-Group.These are characterized as follows. 1. The Early A-Group inhabited the northern part of Lower Nubiaand was contemporary with the latter part of Egypt’s Amratian,culture and early Gerzian.The richest cemetery was located at Khor Bahan.This phase was also coexistent with a Sudanese Neolithic culturecalled the Abkan, which dominated the regionat the Second Cataract in Batn el-Hagar.The true relationship between the Egyptian Predynastic cultureand the Early A-Group is not yet fully understood. 2. The Middle A-Group was contemporary with Egypt’s middle Gerzianand is considered to be a formative phase of the A-Group proper.The communities in Lower Nubia and the northern part of Batn el-Hagardeveloped a uniform culture, characterized by lively contacts with Egyptbut also with Upper Nubia.There was a clear and unbroken continuation as regards traditionsand social development between Middle A-Groupand the subsequent Terminal phase. 3. The Terminal A-Group was coexistent with Egypt’s unification stage(end of Gerzian) and the initial part of the First Dynasty.Cultural and economic exchange along the Nubian part of the Nile valleywas intensified during this period of prosperity and population growth.The most affluent area was located in the southernmost part of Lower Nubia,displaying an impressive number of rich cemeterieswith a strong social presence of women in both the village cemeteriesand in many of the elite cemeteries.An advanced chiefdom that controlled at leastthe southern part of Lower Nubiamay have been formed during the Terminal A-Group,perhaps the result of a consolidation process parallel to that of Egypt.The center was at Qustul near the present Sudanese- Egyptian border,where the Chicago Oriental Institute has excavatedan elite cemetery with funerary offerings of outstanding quality.The complete breakdown of the A-Group culture came abruptlywhen the Egyptian kings of the First Dynasty took full controlof the southern trade and the flow of raw materials.The population may have become nomadic,leaving few material remains behind.Between the reign of Djer of the First Dynasty (c.2900 BC)and the Fifth Dynasty (c.2374 BC) there are very few tracesof indigenous Nubian settlements or graves.An Egyptian settlement, was found at Buhen opposite Wadi Halfa,dating to the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.