The Nubia Museum

De site van het Nubisch museum in Aswan.
Een erg mooie site.
Veel over het museum zelf maar ook over de Nubiers.
Misschien wel het meest interessant zijn de links naar andere web sites.
Sommige links werken niet maar er zitten juweeltjes tussen.
Die sites gaan vaak ook verder dan Egypte.
Ook Soedan en Ethiopixc3xab, en de archeologische opgravingen daar, komen aan bod.

Links: The Nubia Museum.

Koning Shabatka

Dit is bijvoorbeeld de pagina waarop het hoofd van Koning Shabatka te zien is.


Hier zie je de kronen of diademen.


Dit is een beschrijving van de Nubiers en hun leefgewoontes,
archeologische vondsten ed van voor de Egyptische overheersing.

Deel van de tekst over de A-groep van de web site:

The general characteristics of the A-Group culture
can be summarised as follows.
The population, estimated at less than 20 000,
lived in small communities along the flood plain.
Structural remains of houses have been found only occasionally,
most notably stone foundations and Afia, near Korosko.
Animal husbandry, primarily cattle raising,
formed the basis of their economy.
They also practiced agriculture, growing cereal grains
and leguminous plants.
Fishing, hunting and food gathering were probably complementary parts
of their subsistence.
On the whole, the material remains of the A-Group
display a blending of Egyptian and Sudanese designs and influences.
The distribution of the funerary remains indicates a social inequality
that became strongly emphasized towards the end of the period.
The control of trade and exchange in Nubia might have become
the decisive factor in the development of the A-Group’s socio-economic
and political structure.
The leaders of the A-Group communities probably
played an important intermediary role
among the fast-developing Egyptian economy,
the communities in Upper Nubia and those in surrounding regions,
furnishing raw materials of various kinds, including ivory, hardwoods,
precious stones, and gold, perhaps also cattle.
There are three chronological phases of the A-Group.
These are characterized as follows.

1. The Early A-Group inhabited the northern part of Lower Nubia
and was contemporary with the latter part of Egypt’s Amratian,
culture and early Gerzian.
The richest cemetery was located at Khor Bahan.
This phase was also coexistent with a Sudanese Neolithic culture
called the Abkan, which dominated the region
at the Second Cataract in Batn el-Hagar.
The true relationship between the Egyptian Predynastic culture
and the Early A-Group is not yet fully understood.

2. The Middle A-Group was contemporary with Egypt’s middle Gerzian
and is considered to be a formative phase of the A-Group proper.
The communities in Lower Nubia and the northern part of Batn el-Hagar
developed a uniform culture, characterized by lively contacts with Egypt
but also with Upper Nubia.
There was a clear and unbroken continuation as regards traditions
and social development between Middle A-Group
and the subsequent Terminal phase.

3. The Terminal A-Group was coexistent with Egypt’s unification stage
(end of Gerzian) and the initial part of the First Dynasty.
Cultural and economic exchange along the Nubian part of the Nile valley
was intensified during this period of prosperity and population growth.
The most affluent area was located in the southernmost part of Lower Nubia,
displaying an impressive number of rich cemeteries
with a strong social presence of women in both the village cemeteries
and in many of the elite cemeteries.
An advanced chiefdom that controlled at least
the southern part of Lower Nubia
may have been formed during the Terminal A-Group,
perhaps the result of a consolidation process parallel to that of Egypt.
The center was at Qustul near the present Sudanese- Egyptian border,
where the Chicago Oriental Institute has excavated
an elite cemetery with funerary offerings of outstanding quality.
The complete breakdown of the A-Group culture came abruptly
when the Egyptian kings of the First Dynasty took full control
of the southern trade and the flow of raw materials.
The population may have become nomadic,
leaving few material remains behind.
Between the reign of Djer of the First Dynasty (c.2900 BC)
and the Fifth Dynasty (c.2374 BC) there are very few traces
of indigenous Nubian settlements or graves.
An Egyptian settlement, was found at Buhen opposite Wadi Halfa,
dating to the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.